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Exploration of a hybrid zone between two toad species in
Central Europe’s Carpathian region with a new molecular marker

Published 2022

Zoltán GÁL1a*, Tibor KOVÁCS2a, János UJSZEGI3, Brandon P. ANTHONY4,
Balázs VÁGI5 and Orsolya I. HOFFMANN1

  1. Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Gödöllő, Pest County, Hungary.
  2. Hungarian Biodiversity Research Society, Budapest, Hungary.
  3. Lendület Evolutionary Ecology Research Group, Plant Protection Institute, Centre for Agricultural Research, Budapest, Hungary.
  4. Department of Environmental Sciences and Policy, Central European University, Vienna, Austria.
  5. University of Debrecen, Department of Evolutionary Zoology and Human Biology, Debrecen, Hajdú-Bihar County, Hungary.
    a. These authors contributed equally to this work.
  • Corresponding author, Z. Gál, E-mail:


SZINETÁR, CS., SZITA, É. & KOVÁCS, P.: Arachnofaunistical studies in the Kongó meadow (Szigliget).
Abstract: The Felső-Kongó-meadows are typical wetlands of the Tapolca Basin in the Balaton Upland.
This paper includes the spider data collected on the XII th Hungarian Biodiversity Days 06-07.06.2014.
During the two days of this event 116 spider species were collected. Among the collected species were
some rare and remarkable wetland spiders: Ero cambridgei Kulczyński, 1911, Rugathodes instabilis (O.
P.-Cambridge, 1871), Theridion hemerobium Simon, 1914, Larinia bonneti Spassky, 1939, Pirata
uliginosus (Thorell, 1856), Pulchellodromus ruficapillus (Simon, 1885).
Keywords: wetland spiders, Balaton Uplands, Larinia bonneti, Biodiversity Day


SALLEE-KERESZTURI, B.: Natural Resource Management from the point of view of Human Ecology
Abstract: Inventory and monitoring activities of the flora and fauna of the Tapolca Basin in Western
Hungary have been quite intense in the last decade. This included a LIFE project from 2007-2009 on the
Kongó Meadow sample site in Szigliget, at the border to the village of Hegymagas. Along with the goal of
renaturation, the project’s intention was also to show best practices for ecological meadow management
on a Natura 2000 site. However, the efforts to motivate local farmers and decision makers for appropriate
natural resource management and ecosystem protection still raise questions. For example, how to build
effective and long lasting bridges between environment and society-economy, while motivating the local
participants in their own ecological, economical and social well being. If we wish environmental
protection to be more effective, cost efficient and sustainable from the point of view of Human Ecology,
the traditional sectoral environmental planning and management needs to focus more on preventing
ecosystem degradation while improving outreach to local agricultural and economical actors, decision
makers, environmental engineers and the local inhabitants. This includes a better understanding of their
local background, social situation and future interests.
Keywords: Tapolca Basin, biodiversity, resource management, conservation, sustainability, rural
development, outreACH

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